Bacterialogical Quality of Hand-Drugwell Water and its' Effects on the Prevalence of Diarrhoea Among Users in Bweyale Town Council - Kiryandongo District.
Active surveillance of drinking water is a vigilant Public Health assessment to review safety and acceptability of human drinking water. In August and September 2011, a prevalence survey for diarrhea in 771 households was conducted and 106 water samples from Hand-dug wells in Bweyale Town Council were analyzed in the National Water and Sewerage Cooperation Central laboratory. The objective was to establish the bacteriological quality of water from Hand-dug wells and its effects on the prevalence of diarrhoea among user/ residents in Bweyale Town Council. The Study design was cross-sectional and sample sizes of 771 households and 106 water samples were derived using Keish and Leisli (1965) and Yamane’s (1967) formulae at 95% confidence interval respectively. Sample selection was two-stage cluster and simple random sampling of households and Hand-dug wells respectively. Membrane filtration method was used for bacteriological water quality analysis. Cross tabulation, frequencies and logistic regression was performed to make scientific meaning out of the data collected. Of the Hand-dug well water samples tested, 15.1% were found contaminated with E. coli and a prevalence of diarrhoea of 24.5%. A chi-square test for the association between E. coli and the prevalence of diarrhoea among those who drink water from Hand-dug wells turned out to be insignificant (χ 2 cal = 1.0426 compared to χ 2 observ at 0.05 level of significance = 3.841). The distances of Hand-dug wells from contamination points such as latrines, household/communal damping sites as well as construction technology including well lining, drainage well cover and quality assurance including disinfection frequencies, abstraction mechanisms and turbidity turned out to be significant in influencing the bacteriological quality of water from Hand-dug wells with except of the distance from communal damping sites (>30meters) inferred as less significant. The study Recommended for an increased health education, awareness and sensitization on better sanitary completion of Hand-dug wells construction and extra-ordinary efforts on superior technical supervision towards sitting, well lining as well as super structure completion of Handdug wells in Bweyale in accordance to DWD’s (2007) & sphere minimum standards (2005). Provision of alternative water sources such as deep wells and tap water, better lining technology such as PVC, concrete. Proper disposal of waste and latrines away from hand-dug wells Vigilant public health assessments & surveillance, government support towards provision of enabling environment (relevant policies, laws, adequate funding) and encouraging availability of appropriate facilities and safe water goods such as Bio-sand filters, water purification materials such as aqua-tab.